Change of indigenous values and identity
Conventionally, tourism can result in a loss or a change of values among the local residents can generate a number of closely related influences including;
Local culture is transformed into a commercial activity
Tourism in New York has turned the indigenous culture into a commodity. This happened when local customs, festivals and traditions are reinvented to meet the expectations of the tourists and leading to a reconstructed ethnicity. (Buckley, 2010, p86).
New York remains at a risk of standardization in the course of fulfilling the desires of the tourists: whereas, accommodation, food and drinks, and landscape must conform to the desires of the tourists, especially for the unfamiliar and the new visitors. However, it is necessary at the same time not to have too strange or new products because only a few tourists are real sense seeking for absolutely new things. (Richards, 2009, p 103).
Adaptation to the demand of the tourists
Tourists are in demand of crafts, cultural manifestations, arts and souvenirs. As a tourist destination, craftsmen in New York City, have actively responded to the increasing demand and have implemented changes in designing their products in response to the tastes of their new customers. The interest portrayed by tourists can heighten the virtue of self worth among the artists and at the same time retain a cultural tradition. Erosion of cultural values may happen in the course of trading cultural products. (Richards, 2009, p 105).
Since tourism encompasses the movement of individuals and people to varying geographical destinations, and creation of social relations among people who would rather not meet, clashes of cultural practices can occur due to differences in cultures, religious and ethnic groups, lifestyles, values, languages and degree of prosperity. (Buckley, 2010, p89). The local residents’ attitude towards the development of tourism is likely to unfold via apathy, potential antagonism, and irritation when anti-tourist mind-set begin to develop between the local residents; through euphoria stages, where tourist are much welcome.
Cultural clashes may be promoted also through:
Economic imbalance between the local residents and the tourists who normally spend more than they do at home.
Some tourist behavior may cause irritation in New York- more often, out of carelessness or ignorance, tourists fail to respect the moral values and customs of the locals.
As an example to support the above claim, there are more than 370, 000 ethnic Chinese in New York city. The new year parade of Chinese is the peak of a series of new year celebrations among the Chinese. It attracts huge numbers of locals and visitors, both the Chinese and non-Chinese. By participating the new year parade of the Chinese, one can purchase Chinese souvenirs, and watch traditional performances.
The celebration of new years by Chinese in the fourth year begun with a fire cracker ritual. The firecrackers were irritating the local residents and they were outlawed by the Giuliani administration in 1997. However, the ban was lifted after the 9/11 terror attacks. (Buckley, 2010, p91).
The niche types of tourism in New York
Business tourism entails participating in exhibitions, conferences and meetings. Compared to other regular niches of tourism, they engage a smaller proportion of population with distinct motivations, freedom-of-options is an additional aspect which limits restrictions enforced via business aspects. New York city is the headquarters of united nations. Tourists visit the region in the form of business trips, where different world leaders convene to talk about humanitarian issues. ( Smith, 2006, p24).
Tourists visit the region to view the statue of liberty. It is a symbol of freedom in America, it is also a welcome to migrants who settle in U. S in search for a better and quality life. People tour the American museum of natural history , it hosts a number of temporary exhibits. People also tour the Ellis island museum of immigrants. ( Smith, 2006, p24).
It incorporates recreational activities by the sea such as water, and sea sports such as windsurfing, sailing, surfing, swimming, and rowing. For example, tourists and commuters use the Staten Island ferry to view the harbor, as well as the statue of liberty.
The community in this city has encouraged tourism in many aspects. For example the Chinese new year event. Most people coming from other regions are time-switchers and casuals. Casuals are visitors who are within the community, interested in other motives such as visiting relatives, but they participate in the event. Time switchers are who rescheduled to visit the community, so that their visit can correspond to the Chinese event. The community in New York has also started businesses locally that match tourists tastes and preferences. (Buckley, 2010, p101).
Sustainable tourism is endeavoring to make a minimal effect on the local culture and the environment within which tourism is practiced. This also involves assisting in creating future jobs for local residents. The main purpose of sustainable tourism is to ascertain that development comes along with constructive experience for tourists, tourist companies, and local people. (Aronsson, 2000, p153). There are two types sustainable travel tourism; ethical and ecotourism.
The New York city community has a lot that makes it a destination of tourists that is environmental friendly. Ethical tourism can be practiced through mass transit. Which means residing at either a hotel or B&B in an effort retain green environment, shopping at a local store, and taking meals at a coffee shop, mom & pop eatery, or at a diner rather than eating from fast food chain. New York also recycles its cans and bottles. People are encouraged to retain the environment by participating in a baseball game. (Aronsson, 2000, p154).
Impact of tourism on environment
Tourism especially on ecotourism and nature promotes conservation of natural resources such as central park, and wildlife. This is because they are viewed as tourism assets. Funds for maintaining marine parks and animal preserves are generated through guide fees and entrance charges. (Richards, 2000, p74).
Tourism is also a threat to cultural and natural resources of a place, such as beaches, heritage sites, water supply, and coral reefs through overuse. In addition, it results in high levels of pollution through littering, high levels of sewerage production, noise and traffic emissions. This poses the health of the residents at risk.
For example, New York has a high risk of cancer caused by airborne chemicals. This was a study conducted by the environmental protection agency. The study showed that the residents of the county had the third highest risk of cancer as a result of airborne emissions of all the U. S counties. (Richards, 2000, p76).
Impact of tourism on economic development
Tourism has created employment, via direct employment in the industry of tourism and also indirectly within sectors such as transportation and retail. When tourists spend money on products and services, it results in what is referred to as multiplier effect and hence generating more jobs. In addition, tourism industry creates opportunities for small scale enterprises such as airport cabs. It also generates additional revenues from taxation such as hotel and airport taxes. For example, according to research, New York direct visitor spending in 2011 amounted to $34. 5 billion; wages generated by tourism in 2011 totalled $18. 6 billion; 324, 605 jobs were supported by tourist spending in 2011; each household in the city profited by an aggregate of $1, 350 in savings of tax due to travel and tourism. (Carbaugh, 2013, p122).
Paradoxes that effect:
Successful tourism depends on the development of basic infrastructure including: roads, hotels and visitor centers. The cost of this is normally incurred by the government, and it will of course come out of revenues generated from the tax. Employment generated by tourism are poorly paid and conventionally seasonal, yet the industry can increase the prices of local property and prices of products and services. Income generated by the industry does not often profit the local residents since part of it leaks out to large international firms, for example, an intercontinental chain of hotels. Some Tourist destinations can be negatively impacted by incidents such as natural disasters and terrorism. For example, The number of visitors to new York city was the lowest in 2001 where there were only 35. 2 tourists in the region. This was attributed to 9/11 attack. ( Morgan, 2009, p244).
In some cases, out of carelessness or ignorance, tourists do not respect the values and customs of the local residents. For example, the new year Chinese parade in New York, began with a firecracker celebration. It was a noisy explosion that took five minutes, and it caused a wall of fire and smoke purposed at eliminating past-year evil spirits. The event was in contrary to the local values and it was phased out by the local administration. (Buckley, 2010, p130).
The environment of this community
The community has significantly gained from tourism such as the creation of employment through small scale enterprises, however the city is posed to a threat of city vehicle diesel exhausts. This results to particle pollution in the environment. The city government further incurs a challenge of equipping the vehicles with catalytic converters. (Buckley, 2010, p 132).
Agencies and non-profit organizations supporting tourism
Greater Harlem chamber of commerce has come up with an initiative known as,’small business and professional services tourism initiative.’ It has partnered with other agencies such as NYC &Company, I Love New York, upper Manhattan Empowerment Zone (UMEZ), HARLEM WEEK. Inc, and Harlem Arts Alliance. (Carbaugh, 2013, p 145).
The Harlem Week event, including other activities round the year, focuses on the development and growth of small enterprises, restaurants, professional service providers, vendors and local boutiques by offering the required economic stimulus to the mentioned enterprises.
The “ Guides Association of New York City (GANYC).” Is a nonprofit New York based organization, the members are legally licensed guides who are professionally trained. The organization provides free help to tourists requiring guide at their website. (Morgan, 2009, p46).
Aronsson, Lars. The development of sustainable tourism. London: Continuum, 2000. Print.
Buckley, Ralf. Conservation tourism. Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK: CAB International, 2010. Print.
Carbaugh, Robert J.. International economics. 14th ed. Mason, OH: South-Western CENGAGE Learning, 2013. Print.
Morgan, Matthew J.. The impact of 9/11 on business and economics the business of terror. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. Print.
Richards, Greg. Tourism and sustainable community development. London: Routledge, 2000. Print.
Richards, Greg. The impact of culture on tourism. Paris: OECD, 2009. Print.
Smith, Melanie K.. Tourism, culture, and regeneration. Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK: CABI Pub., 2006. Print.