The process of Galileo – inquisitorial trial of 70-year-old physicist and astronomer Galileo, held in 1633 in Rome. Galileo was accused of supporting the banned public heliocentric system of Copernicus, which the Catholic Church has earlier condemned as heretical doctrine (1616). As a result of the process, despite the agreement to renounce Copernicanism and repent, Galileo was sentenced to life in prison, which was soon changed to the house arrest and lifetime supervision of the Inquisition.
“ Galileo process subsequently became a symbol of the confrontation between science and religion – or, more generally, freedom of thought and dogmatic (political or religious) teachings, claiming the absolute monopoly of the spiritual.”(McMullen, 2003). Link to this process is often used as an argument in the debate on these topics.
The condemnation of Galileo by the Inquisition is a historical event, for which the mass of studies already carried out including different works with the archives of the Vatican. Though this story obviously tells how narrow-minded official Church is, the process of condemnation of Galileo had some positive moments which cleanse the reputation of Vatican. In relation to the Copernican theory, Pope from the beginning demonstrated some tolerance, though, of course, he did not act on its behalf. He stayed at the opinion that any astronomical theory will only hypothesis and it cannot be proved. At the same time the new pope expressed his respect and admiration towards the Galileo. Moreover, in 1616, Cardinal opposed the declaration of the Copernican theory as heretical. Despite the entire situation that occurred in reference with Galileo’s condemnation which blackened the image of the Church, the real historical events tell us that Church saved some prudence and did not eliminated Galileo completely.
The movement of Reformation (XVI century) has definitely changed the world. The topic is very wide and interesting but cannot be described in such a small scale of the following article so it is logical to review some of the aspects of it. And it would be radical part of Reformation.
Anabaptist or rebaptized persons is the name of the participants of radical religious movements of the Reformation, mainly in Germany, Switzerland, and the Netherlands. “ The movement was extremely heterogeneous and ranged from close to the generally accepted tradition of the Protestant Reformation of the Master, and even in some Catholic representatives, to very strange, sometimes radical sectarian manifestations in others.” (Baylor, 1991). The problem of the heterogeneity is compounded by the fact that all groups that made up the movement of the Radical Reformation (Anabaptists, Spiritualists, Socinians and others) are often called as Anabaptists , though historians, especially in recent times, prefer to distinguish them.
The main feature of the movement was to call for the re-baptizing in conscious age. Representatives of the radical part of Anabaptists, many of which are adhered to the communist idea of community of property and some of them of community of women, took part in the Peasants’ War in 1524-1525, and in 1534-1535 formed the Münster Rebellion, and eventually have been destroyed. Another part took a more moderate position, adhered to pacifism (Grebel, Simons, and Marpek) or even cooperated with the local authorities (Hubmayer).
It has been preserved to the present in the form of community of Mennonites, Amish and Hutterite. The ideas of moderate Anabaptists in some way influenced the formation of the English Baptist community in the Netherlands in the XVI century.
The Jesuits played an appreciable role in the Counter-Reformation, were involved in educational, scientific and missionary activities. Members of the Society of Jesus have taken the vow of obedience to the Pope ” in carrying of missions”.
“ The first seed of education in Asia had been planted by the College of St. Paul in Goa – the first educational institution of the Jesuits opened in 1544.” (Wilson, Bane, 2010). Since this moment educational establishments were opened in Japan, China and India. Participation in the establishment of the Jesuits in Asia, which continues to this day – it is priceless heritage. They were pioneers in providing educational opportunities to the rural poor, Dalits and tribal. By opening its doors to all, irrespective of caste, creed, sex, language, Jesuits positively and harmonically impacted Asia. By the Jesuit educational system in South Asia, refers 387 primary and secondary schools, 50 colleges and 15 high schools. These educational institutions are known as having a high quality of services.
“ The penetration of the first Jesuit mission in China for more than two hundred years performed the function of an outpost of European influence at the court of the emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties.”(Lu, 2011). The background, on which acted vibrant personalities who belonged to the Order of Jesus, which was given at the disposal of the descendants of the unique eyewitness accounts of China.
Through education and science the Jesuits made a huge contribution to the development of the peoples of Asia: their mission is formed of men and women, leaders, philosophers and thinkers, educators and politicians who have dedicated their lives to their people.
Emerson Thomas McMullen. `Galileo’s condemnation: the real and complex story`. Georgia Journal of Science. Vol. 61. Issue 2. Summer, 2003.
Baylor, Michael G. `The Radical Reformation`. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. 1991.
Kenneth Wilson, Mary Jo Bane. `Reflections on the Jesuit Mission to China`. Harvard Kennedy School. February 2010.
Caitlin Lu. `Matteo Ricci and the Jesuit Mission in China 1583-1610`. The Concord Review. 2011.