However, in most of the existing asynchronous distance learning systems, the images shown on screen are limited to the images of the teacher with synchronized digital documents used in lectures. Since these systems have not been able to convey interactions between a teacher and students, the educational effectiveness is lower than the traditional lecture. This paper describes a distance learning system, which supports interactions between a students in asynchronous distance learning. During synchronous distance learning, This system can record interactions automatically with XML.
It can provide recorded interactions to students who are studying asynchronously. An important point to emphasize is not only synchronizing digital documents with recorded lecture video but also synchronizing recorded interactions with digital documents and lecture video. Moreover in order to support interactions, this system also links similar questions together and can suggest the most meaningful question. Introduction In recent years, we have been witnessing the rapid evolution of computer networking genealogy and the demand for acquiring life-long knowledge. Most of the workers needed to broaden their academic knowledge, in order to gain economic stability and progress. Some of them prefer attending traditional schools at their own available time. However they must compromise having formal schooling because of time and distance.
For these reasons, the implementation of a Distance Learning System has been desired and now have been researched and developed Distance learning has four factors which increase the number of questions. They are (l)the lack of awareness, 2)the ability to easily ask a question due to the distance between a teacher and students, (3)the difficulty of solving a question among students, and (4)the possibility of a lot of students’ taking a class simultaneously. The increase of the number of questions prevent a teacher from lecturing, because he may have to all of his time answering questions.
On the other hand, human communication is becoming increasingly important as the Internet grows. In addition, interactions and collaborative interpretation[l] are crucial in the development of human communication through distance learning. Furthermore in a cooperative educational environment there is a notion of “ Learning by Observation”. Students that can learn by other students’ actions and awareness have an important advantage over those who can’t. Viewed in this light, “ Learning by Observation” is one of the most important factors for the effective education. However, most of the existing asynchronous distance learning systems can support the images of the teacher with synchronized digital documents used in lectures, however they have not been able to convey interactions(between a teacher and students, or among students), atmosphere or wariness to students who study asynchronously.
As a result, students cannot experience such as a traditional face to face lecture. In order to solve these problems, we propose a distance learning system, “ I-II-DOLS( Integrated Interaction EVENT Distance Learning System )”, which provides the ability to display questions and also links similar questions together. Proceedings of the 22 ND International Conference on Distributed Computing systems workshops (ACIDIC’02) 0-7695-1 588-6/02 $17.
00 2002 IEEE It can suggest the most meaningful question. Moreover III-DOLS supports live interactions and records interactions during synchronous distance learning. It conveys recorded 2 Effective information for Distance Learning This section describes cope with many questions together and the importance of interactions in distance learning. 2. Linking similar questions together As we said earlier, distance learning has factors which increase questions. If too many questions are sent to a teacher, a teacher can not answer all questions in lecturing. For example if the number of questions sent to a teacher is twenty or thirty in the traditional lecture, he ay have to spend all of his time answering questions. On the other hand, if students ask too many similar questions, it may be more meaningful for the students if the teacher answers the questions many students have in common.
This is because, by answering these questions, more students will be pleased at once. However, the distance learning system, which exists now, supports mail, chat or BBS during question and answer sessions. Currently very little information about the question is known for example who sent a question, when the question was sent, and what the content of the question was. As a result the teacher cannot tell what questions should be answered. 2. 2 Figure 1.
PC for Distance Learning( ODL-PC ) 3 Integrated Interaction EVENT Distance Learning System(l-lee-DOLS) In this section we propose an distance learning system, I-II-DOLS. First, we present the educational environment, with the use of double liquid crystal displays. Second, we propose a method of asking questions and the ability to link similar questions together. Finally, we introduce “ Interaction EVENT” and define it. It enables students to perceive recorded interactions in an asynchronous distance learning environment.
Interactions in Distance Learning 3. As discussed in Section 1, Learning by Observation is one of the most important factors when students take a class. As regards synchronous distance learning system, live interactions during question and answer sessions have been able to be supported with the use of audio and video equipment. Comparatively one of the most basic asynchronous distance learning systems, WBT[II] which uses WWW and video and audio streaming, cannot support interactions. Normally, in WBT the images shown on screen are limited to the images of the teacher with synchronized gait documents.
However, important information that can be obtained through interactions cannot be conveyed to the students in asynchronous distance learning. Inevitably, in such environment students who study asynchronously cannot have a “ Learning by Observation” experience. Educational environment Normally, a PC has one display, therefore the size of the lecture video is so small that it is impossible to see nonverbal information, such as gestures.
Therefore, the double liquid crystal displays( ODL-PC : Figure 1 ) are superior for distance learning. ODL-PC utilizes the Multi-Display function f Windows NT, which means that two liquid crystal displays are connected to one PC. The image of the teacher is shown in the upper display, and the digital documents are shown in the lower display during a lecture. The lower display is discontinuities, and a light pen is used instead of a mouse. With the use of two liquid crystal displays, the ODL-PC provides a larger workspace which is more effective when utilizing multimedia information. 2 systems workshops (SUICIDES) 0-7695-1 588-6/02 $17. 00 2002 IEEE The AM-statement is represented by an affirmative or negative statement, and makes a clear distinction among questions. Often when a question is asked, the question towards which students send an affirmative AM should be shown emphatically.
Section 3. 2. 1 shows questions that are shown on the documents in the form of Q”. The more frequently an affirmative AM is sent towards a question, the bigger the becomes, in contrast, the more frequently a negative AM is sent towards a question, the smaller the becomes. In other words, students’ Mamas affect the size of “? ” on the digital documents. As a result, a teacher and students can detect questions which are more questionable among students.
Mamas provides an opportunity for teachers to know a students’ comprehension. AM-statement of the prototype system is discussed in Section 4. 2. Figure 2. The display of the question on documents 3. 2 The effective display of questions 3.
3 We propose the ability to display questions and also link similar questions together. And we propose “ AM(an Opinion for Adding Meaningfulness to a question)” for suggesting the most meaningful question and providing an opportunity for teachers to know a students’ comprehension. The images shown on screen are limited to the images of he teacher with synchronized digital documents in most of the existing asynchronous distance learning systems. Actually, there are many interactions or awareness in the traditional lecture that students of asynchronous distance learning can not absorb. The existing asynchronous distance learning systems lack interactions. Students have not been able to necessarily have a “ real school lecture” experience.
As I mentioned before, interactions are very important for education. In this section we propose the distance learning system(l-lee-DOLS), which record all of the interactions automatically during humorous distance learning, and convey the recorded interactions to students during asynchronous distance learning. 3.
2. A method of asking questions If a student wants to ask a question to the teacher, the student double-clicks the questionable part of the digital document on the lower display shown in Figure 1 with light pen. And then one window of which the student writes a question in the textures appears, and the student can send a question. The passenger and its rectangular coordinates can be acquired by using the method of asking questions, as shown above. By utilizing them, as the Figure 2 shows, questions appear on the documents in the form of Q”.
When students send questions, they are distributed to the teacher’s terminal and other students’ terminals through a proposed server( Figure 3 Those questions are similarly shown on the documents in real time.