What is corruption?
In general, corruption is a form of dishonesty or criminal activity undertaken by a person or organization entrusted with or has a position of authority, often to acquire illicit benefit. It takes many forms, and perpetrators are skilled in developing new ways to be corrupt and cover up their tracks. (U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre, 2019). Corruption has become a growing issue in the world of late and has affected many economies of different countries to different extents.
Measure of corruption.
The Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) is an index published annually by Transparency International since 1995. This is used for ranking countries by their perceived levels of public sector corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys. The CPI generally defines corruption as the misuse of public power for private benefit. The CPI currently ranks 176 countries ” on a scale from 100- very clean to 0- highly corrupt.(World E conomic Forum, 2019). This is according to the 2018 CPI.
Corruption in Kenya
Corruption in the post-colonial government of Kenya has a history which ps the era of the Jomo Kenyatta and Daniel Arap Moi’s KANU governments, Mwai Kibaki’s PNU government and the current Uhuru Kenyatta’s Jubilee Party government. (Kobuthi and Atellah, 2019)
By the twilight of the Moi era, the effects of economic plunder had restructured Kenyan society. 20 years later, under UhuRuto (Uhuru and Ruto, the president and deputy president of Kenya 2013- 2022), corruption is better dressed, digitized and speaks finer English. Nofamilyis untouched by it. For the millennial generation, the social and economic effects of moral collapse have profound personal consequences. (Githongo et al., 2019)
The Presidency of Uhuru Kenyatta began on 9 April 2013 after being sworn in as 4th president of Kenya. He succeeded Mwai Kibaki. (En. wikipedia, 2019). Before former President Mwai Kibaki’s presidential term ended he formed a body known as the EACC or the ethics and anti- corruption commission. The EACC was established on 5 September 2011 and Commissioners Irene Keino and Prof. Jane K. Onsongo were appointed on 11 May 2012 to head the anti-graft agency.
Chairman Mumo Matemu was nominated by the GrandCoalitionprincipals, President Mwai Kibaki and Prime Minister Raila Odinga in 2012 were to head the anti-graft agency alongside commissioners Irene Keino and Prof. Jane Onsongo. The three have since resigned concurrently amid controversy in between April–May 2015. (EACC, 2019). In November 2015, President Uhuru Kenyatta nominated new members to head the agency. Philip Kinusu as the commission’s chairperson alongside four other officials as commissioners. The commissioners are Dabar Maalim, Paul Gachoka, Sophia Lepuchirit and Rose Macharia. (Kobuthi and Atellah, 2019)
Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission also are known as the EACC, in a survey conducted before last year’s (2018) General Election revealed the most corrupt counties in the country.
Led by Chairman Eliud Wabukala, the commission ranked counties by the proportion of those who paid bribes. The survey dubbed, National Ethics and Corruption Survey 2016 was released on Tuesday, March 27 revealed that at least 6, 000 households were surveyed. (Githongo et al., 2019)
According to the survey, these are the most corrupt Counties in Kenya:
- Moringa County topped the list with 90. 7 percent of the respondents admitting to having parted with a bribe.
- Trans Nzoia County followed with 84 per cent of respondents found guilty.
- Mandera Count was third with 79. 4 percent respondents confirmed they had engaged in corrupt deals.
- Kirinyaga County came fourth with 78. 9 percent of the respondents found guilty of the act.
- Marsabit County followed closely with a total of 78. 2 percent admitting to giving bribes.
Other counties that had a high number of corruption cases include:
- Tharaka Nithi
- Elgeyo Marakwet
Some counties were found with minimal cases of corruption of below 10 percent. These counties are:
- Taita Taveta
- Tana River
Causes of corruption
HISTORY OF INVESTIGATION FIRMS
As a craft, private investigation has existed for thousands of years, for as long as people have required it. The first known private detective agency, however, was founded in 1833 by a man named Eugène François Vidocq, who was a French soldier. Le bureau des renseignments, or the Office of Intelligence as it was called, was staffed by men of similarly patchy backgrounds with law enforcement. Most of these men were ex-convicts and, as a result, official law enforcement attempted to shut the operation down several times. (Pvteyes, 2019)
Evolution of Private Investigators
The private investigation industry came into existence as a response to a specific need: in the olden days, clients went to private investigators with the expectation that they would do work and act as the police in matters where traditional and official law enforcement were ill-equipped or simply unwilling to do. (Pvteyes. com, 2019)
They were mostly employed by wealthy owners who effectively utilized and deployed them to resolve labor disputes. Their primary function was to control workers and keep the peace, especially those who had been inspired by theFrench Revolution. They also did mercenary work, as well as acted as private security. (Pvteyes, 2019)
EXAMPLES OF INVESTIGATION FIRMS
There are a number of investigation firms globally and below I have listed a couple of the top investigation firms both in Kenya and globally including the one that the research will be based my research on which is uptown loss assessors.
In Kenya there are a number of investigation firms and these are the following:
- Uptown loss assessors- uptown loss assessors is a private investigation firm that works for various insurance companies in Kenya. (Kenyaplex, 2019).
- Protection masters- Protection Masters is a private investigative agency in Kenya with a regional and international expertise. (Protection Masters Kenya, 2019).
- Silver edge private investigators- silver edge is a private investigation firm that specializes on corporates. (Silveredge, 2019)
There are also investigation firms that are located overseas and these are the following:
- Peregrine International-Peregrine International has been operational since 2003, serving and supporting a wide range of clients in the UK, West and East Europe, USA, sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and South Asia. (Peregrine-international, 2019)
- Detek Detectives- this is a private investigation firm, they have more than 100 years of experience with various situations and cases – from billing and insurance fraud, to phony claims of work disability or violations of competition law. (Detek-detectives. com, 2019)
- Max Woodrow and company this is a global provider of investigations and intelligence solutions to government, business and private clients. That was founded in 1997. (Maxwoodrow. com, 2019)
Uptown loss assessors
Uptown loss assessors is an investigation firm that works for different insurance companies they are registered under insurance regulatory authority who are the regulators of the company. The company was founded in the year 1998 and got in cooperated in the year 2005. They provide investigation services to insurance companies on request.
WHAT OTHERS HAVE SAID ABOUT THE ISSUE
Corruption is a problem which is experienced practically everywhere in the world. Corruption is a pressing economic issue that affect both developing and developed countries alike. Over the years corruption has grown and reared its ugly anatomy on Kenya as a country. This has led to a cycle and chain of events that have further began to affect other businesses in different sectors investigation firm being one of them.
Look for a theory that will apply to your topic- link to corruption
- U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre. (2019). what is corruption? [Online] Available at: https://www. u4. no/topics/anti-corruption-basics/basics [Accessed 2 May 2019].
- Githongo, J., Githongo, J., Ndii, D. and Warah, R. (2019). STATE OF THE NATION: Corruption: A brief history – 1997 to 2018. [Online] The E Review. Available at: https://www. theeastafricanreview. info/op-eds/2018/05/12/state-of-the-nation-corruption-a-brief-history-1997-to-2018/ [Accessed 2 May 2019].
- Kobuthi, J. and Atellah, J. (2019). A Visual History of Corruption Scandals in Kenya 2013 – 2018. [Online] The Elephant. Available at: https://www. theelephant. info/data-stories/2018/06/05/a-visual-history-of-corruption-scandals-in-kenya-2013-2018/ [Accessed 2 May 2019].
- Pvteyes. com. (2019). The History of PIs and Where They Started | NAI. [Online] Available at: https://pvteyes. com/the-history-of-private-investigators-and-where-they-started/ [Accessed 2 May 2019].
- Peregrine-international. com. (2019). Peregrine International. [Online] Available at: https://www. peregrine-international. com/about. php [Accessed 5 May 2019].
- Silveredge. co. ke. (2019). Silver Edge Private Investigators in Kenya. [Online] Available at: https://www. silveredge. co. ke/index. php? id= 6 [Accessed 5 May 2019].
- Kenyaplex. com. (2019). Investigators in Kenya. [Online] Available at: https://www. kenyaplex. com/business-directory/? categoryid= 976 [Accessed 5 May 2019].
- Protection Masters Kenya. (2019). Hire Private Investigators in Nairobi, Kenya, Background Checks, Contraband Goods Private Investigators in Nairobi, Kenya, Counterfeit Goods Private Investigators in Kenya, Fraud Private Investigators in Kenya, Surveillance, Tracing Private Investigators in Kenya, Illegal imports Private Investigators in Kenya, Matrimonial Private Investigators in Kenya. [Online] Available at: https://protectionmasters. co. ke/? gclid= CjwKCAjwk7rmBRAaEiwAhDGhxAybafSmjlFS5RllNdqGOCRJGBcvXSqpA3QCr_nF_hqhAS4zBCfz9hoCS6MQAvD_BwE [Accessed 5 May 2019].
- En. wikipedia. org. (2019). Presidency of Uhuru Kenyatta. [Online] Available at: https://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Presidency_of_Uhuru_Kenyatta [Accessed 5 May 2019].
- World Economic Forum. (2019). these are the world’s least – and most – corrupt countries. [Online] Available at: https://www. weforum. org/agenda/2019/02/least-corrupt-countries-transparency-international-2018/ [Accessed 5 May 2019].
- Detek-detectives. com. (2019). Homepage – DETEK AG Detectives. [Online] Available at: https://www. detek-detectives. com/? gclid= CjwKCAjw_MnmBRAoEiwAPRRWW-JGumvbxM2iLzJ8ev94XBK8K6fy-pxCMR80M9_0dGA9GdoECvSsZBoCt-YQAvD_BwE [Accessed 9 May 2019].
- Maxwoodrow. com. (2019). Max Woodrow & Co… [Online] Available at: http://www. maxwoodrow. co